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HEAT  TREATMENT.                                       301
ceeds .89 per cent, there is an excess of cementite, which therefore forms the walls. Nos. 7 and 8 contain very little carbon, No. 8 being especially soft, showing almost no pearlite.
Index of Micro-Photographs, Pigs. XV-B to G-.
Magnification, No.                                                                                                          Diameterg.
1  Austenite  *................................................        DUO
2  Martensite................,................................        175
3  Pearlite with cementite walls C=1.39..........................          75
4  Lamellar pearlite...........................................        900
{> Granular pearlite...............................,..........        900
6  Pearlite with ferrite walls C=0.67............................          75
7  Mild steel C=0.20 showing ferrite and pearlite..................          75
8  Ferrite C=0.03   ............................................          75
9  Cold worked steel showing lines of flow and in center actual rupture         30
10  Nickel steel roll, fracture in relief............................            \
11  Same steel as No. 10, polished and etched.....................          50
12  Nickel steel roll shown in No. 10, annealed at 800 C............          50
13  Small piece of same nickel steel roll annealed three times at 850,
800, 750 C...........................................          60
14  Special high carbon steel,  unannealed........................          50
15  Special high carbon steel, annealed...........................          50
16  Carbon steel casting, unannealed.............................          20
17  Same steel as No. 16, annealed...............................          50
18  Same steel as No. 16, annealed twice..........................          50
19 '75-lb. T rail, center of head; broken in service.................          40
20  75-lb. T rail, center of head ; broken in service.................          46
21  85-lb. T rail, center of head; broken on drop test..............          48
22  100-lb. T rail, center of head ; finished at 1000 C..............          48
23  85-lb. T rail, center of head; "hot rolled"......................          46
This rail was one of two from the same ingot rolled under different
conditions.    See Section XVe, Par. 1 and 2.
24  85-lb. T rail, center of head; "cold rolled."    See No. 23.........          46
25  107-lb. girder rail, Sec. 228, P. S. Co..........................          44
26  307-lb. girder rail, Sec. 228, P. S. Co..........................          48
27  90-lb. girder rail, Sec. 200, P. S. Co............................          48
28  90-lb. girder rail, Sec. 200, P. S. Co...........................          46
29  70-lb. T rail, Sec. 237, P. S. Co., center of head........-----....          46
30  70-lb. T rail, Sec. 237, near surface..........................          46
31  M. S. Co. 100-lb. T rail, center of head........................          46
32  M. S. Co. 100-lb. T rail, near surface........................          46
33  M. S, Co. 85-lb T rail, near surface............................          46
34  M. S. Co. 85-lb. T rail, "hot rolled."    See No. 23...............          46
35  M. 8. Co. 85-lb. T rail, near surface, "cold rolled."    See No. 23..          46
36  Bessemer steel, C=0.45.    Finished at 490 to show effect of cold
rolling  ..................................,.............
37  Ingot structure, C=0.06....,.................................
38  Center of 1" round, C=0.06..................................
39  Near surface of same piece as No. 38, showing loss of carbon by
heating...............................................          75
40  Ingot, structure, C=0.47..................................-----          20
41  Bloom 8"x8", rolled from 32"x38" ingot; C=.40.................          75
42  Billet 2"x2" hammered from bloom shown In No. 41............. -        75
43  Section of a finished angle...................................          75
44  Ingot structure, C=1.00......................................          20
48 1V round rolled from ingot shown in No. 44;....................          50